From October,to the end of the Okinawa campaign, the Japanese flew 2, Kamikaze missions, of whichor Japan is largely a mountainous country lacking automobile roads, trucks or the gasoline to make use of them.
By the end of November4 months after seizure of the islands, the first of the long-range bomber bases in the Marianas became operational. Plans to develop a synthetic oil industry failed to yield significant results and Japan was almost wholly dependent on oil imports from the United States or the Dutch East Indies.
Despite a decline in demand, shortages of coal were universal throughout the economy. Due to the geography of the Empire, the Japanese ground forces depended for their effectiveness upon overseas support in all areas except the main home islands, Survey report even there, overseas imports of raw materials were required.
Our losses had been heavy. How much do you know about religion? By the Japanese had almost eliminated home industry in their war economy.
Factors in Religious Knowledge What factors seem to contribute to religious knowledge? Had the Japanese been able to sustain an attack of greater power and Survey report they might have been able to cause us to withdraw or to revise our strategic plans.
Production in all plants in the sample, including both hit and unhit, dropped to 35 percent of peak by July The rise was particularly great duringafter the Japanese had learned the lessons of the campaigns.
Local control of the air provided by planes based on Survey report Field made it possible, but barely possible, to defend our unloading supply ships in the daytime, and made it impossible for the Japanese to land, except at night and then under hazardous and unsatisfactory conditions.
When the Japanese attempted reinforcement of northern New Guinea, the Central Pacific advance into the Marianas in Juneforced the abandonment of the operation. The limitations imposed by geography and the range of Japanese land-base planes made it impossible for the Japanese to achieve sufficient mobility of their land-based air forces to concentrate their full air strength against us at any crucial point, prior to the invasion of the Philippines and Okinawa.
Consumers anticipated continued growth in the economy that would produce more jobs and an even lower unemployment rate during the year ahead. It appears, however, that our air attacks on these bypassed positions were often continued longer and in greater weight than was reasonably required or profitable.
Had we constructed more submarines, earlier concentrated on tankers and more fully coordinated long-range air search and attack missions with submarine operations, the ship sinking program might have been even more effective.
Construction of merchant ships increased from approximatelytons into 1, tons of steel ships andtons of wooden ships in Duringthe effects of the net loss of shipping and slow-down in ship operations became such that by the end of the year it no longer was possible to protect even high-priority war production by further shifting of allocations of scarce materials from items of lesser priority.
The economic consequences of the physical damage wrought by air attack are closely interrelated with the concurrent effects of the interdiction of imports, the cumulative effects of under-maintenance of plants, and the declining health, vigor and determination of the Japanese people.
Duringcarrier task forces made deep sweeps which accounted for large numbers of ships.
Much of the equipment which had originally been scheduled for movement into the southern islands was found to be unnecessary and was left behind in order to achieve greater speed. The number of planes originally available was small and opposition was significant.
The Japanese were misled by their own inflated claims of heavy ships sunk, and ignored the advice of their technicians that a heavier explosive head was required to sink large ships.
The Japanese never fully recovered from this disaster, the effects of which influenced all subsequent campaigns. The Japanese were dug in, in tunnels, trenches and caves which were hard to find and often impossible to destroy, either by bombing or by naval shelling.
This coal traffic, formerly water borne, was moving by railroads employing the Kanmon tunnels and the Hakkodate-Aomori rail ferry. Japanese planners were, however, able to secure very substantial increases in the production of those military products which the experiences of the war had demonstrated to be of outstanding importance.
Warships of all types were damaged, including 12 aircraft carriers, 15 battleships, and 16 light and escort carriers.
In the first year of the war, submarines, capable of long-range offensive action inside the Japanese perimeter, sank more than 10 percent and air planes 4 percent of the merchant ship tonnage which Japan possessed at the start of the war.
The principal aircraft engine plants were hit sufficiently heavily and persistently to convince the Japanese that these plants would inevitably be totally destroyed.
In the Philippines campaign, the Army air forces employed comparable techniques, and General Yamashita has testified to his feeling of complete helplessness when confronted with this type of opposition. Production Page 19 hours lost through all causes including absenteeism, sickness, air-raid alerts and enforced idleness rose from 20 percent in to over 40 percent in July Modeled largely after Monitoring the Future, this series of surveys reports national survey results on and year olds and MTF data from 10th-graders are included.
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In two. Recent Publications.
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James Jody L. Herman Susan Rankin Mara Keisling Lisa Mottet Ma’ayan Anafi December The remainder of this report details the findings on both public and scientists’ views about science, engineering and technology topics.
Chapter 1 briefly outlines related Pew Research Center studies and reviews some of the key caveats and concerns in conducting research in this area.
Chapter 2 looks at overall views about science and. News Dive into the world of science! Read these stories and narratives to learn about news items, hot topics, expeditions underway, and much more.Download